Myopia (Nearsighted): Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

1 8 月, 2022

Seeing blurry objects is not supposed to happen in a normal eye condition. But if your eyes can only see near things clearly but not far away objects, you might have myopia or in a more common term, nearsighted. This eye-focus disorder arises when the shape of the eyeball is excessively lengthy in proportion to the cornea and causes light rays to refract incorrectly. Myopia usually starts in childhood. And if your parents are nearsighted, you may be at a higher risk of getting one because it usually runs in families. It is also believed to be a mix of hereditary and environmental factors as well. Say, your lifestyle creates just the right settings such as reading or staring at the TV screen, so you may develop myopia. Nearsightedness will stabilize in early adulthood, but it can sometimes worsen as people get older.

Types of Myopia

There are three types of myopia and understanding them can help to prevent any worsening of it and to know when it is time to see an eye doctor.
1. High myopia
A rare inherited type of high-degree nearsightedness is called high myopia. It happens when your child’s eyeballs grow longer than they should or when the cornea is too steep. Less severe nearsighted should be less than -2 diopters but high myopia is usually defined when the refractive error is greater than -6 diopter. It can progressively worsen to higher powers but often stops getting worse between the ages of 20 to 30. Wearing glasses or contact lenses should solve the vision issues. But in some severe cases, refractive surgery might be needed. It is advisable to get the child’s eyes checked because high myopia may raise their risk of developing more serious sight conditions later in life. Eye diseases like cataracts, detached retinas, and glaucoma might occur. And if left untreated, high myopia complications can lead to blindness.
2. Degenerative myopia
This is a fairly rare but serious form that usually begins in early childhood. Degenerative myopia is considered severe because it damages the retina and is a leading cause of legal blindness. The condition will cause a continuous change in vision that should be checked by an eye specialist in ensuring it is corrected appropriately. Regular examinations will help ensure that any new problems are handled as quickly as possible. Although there is no cure for degenerative myopia, it can be treated with eyeglasses and contact lenses in the same way as mild myopia is. However, some severe or advanced cases of degenerative myopia may no longer be correctable.
3. Progressive myopia
When myopia continues to worsen year after year, it means the child might have progressive myopia. A continuing elongation of the eyeball usually causes it and typically occurs in childhood. But it can keep on going until the early adult years too.  This condition may develop into high myopia. But with a few myopia control methods, it can help to reduce or stop the problem from getting worse.

Symptoms of Myopia

1. Far away objects look blurred or fuzzy
Near or far, everything should appear clearly in a normal eye condition. But if you find it difficult to recognize someone from a distance or are only able to read road signs after you approach a little close to it, it could all be signs of developing myopia. You might also struggle to perceive distance or have a general unawareness of distant objects.
2. Poor school grade
Teachers can often detect the first indications of myopia in children. This could be the result of bad grades or having trouble answering the questions from what is written on the board even though the board is not that far from them.
3. Squint
When a person is having trouble seeing far objects, they often squint their eyes or experience occasional eye strain. And some people get headaches too. Since myopia tends to show up early in life, it is important to look for signs that a child may be nearsighted. Keep an eye of your children whether they are sitting close to the television or if they squint and blink excessively. Because that could be an early sign of myopia.

Treatment of Myopia

Treatment of myopia includes several options and it depends on your preference and severity of your eye condition in choosing the best treatment.
1. Regular eye examinations
Regular eye exams are one of the simplest approaches to protect your eyesight and eye health. This allows your optometrist to monitor any changes and look for any early signs of an eye condition. In most situations, early identification is critical to properly treating eyes.
2. Choosing the right lenses
Getting the right lens for the glasses is vital as the lens design can depend on how severe your myopia is. However, one might opt for contact lenses because of their personal preference, which is totally fine. But remember, make sure you wear the right glasses in order not to under or overcorrect refractive errors to prevent further progression.
3. Eye surgery
The only permanent treatment option for myopia is refractive surgery. Some people refuse to wear glasses because that affects their looks and wearing contacts is such a hassle. So, undergoing eye surgery is the next approach to them – hence, quite a popular treatment to treat myopia.
  • Laser eye surgery (LASIK)
Laser corneal sculpting is a medical procedure that involved reshaping your cornea with lasers to correct myopia permanently. Your eye care specialist may recommend this surgery depending on the severity of your myopia.
  • Implantable Contact Lens (ICL)
ICL is a specially designed soft and flexible lens that is implanted in the eye. The lens will be placed between the iris and the crystalline lens to give you a clearer vision. It is suitable for those who are seeking an alternative to LASIK or other laser vision correction procedures.
4. Ortho-K (Orthokeratology)
Ortho-K is a very intuitive treatment that can minimize myopia’s effects. It involves wearing special contact lenses overnight to help reshape your eye’s surface, allowing you to see clearly without glasses. Upon waking up, remove the lenses and you will be able to see clearly throughout the day without wearing glasses.
5. Atropine
Children who use Atropine for myopia control typically wear glasses during the day and put a drop of Atropine in each eye before going to bed. Tell your kids not to worry because this eye drop does not usually sting and has no effect on the child’s vision or focusing abilities.
6. Myopia control lens treatment
This treatment is using special lenses to help with the rapid progression of myopia. These lenses target the root cause of the problem and help to ease the strain on the child.

Final Say

Science shows that myopia progression and control are becoming more widely available, which benefits you and your children in terms of maintaining good eye health. Shortsightedness does not usually negatively affect your eye health, but it may require the use of myopia glasses to correct the symptoms. When you notice a change in your vision, schedule an appointment with your optometrist, who will be able to quickly identify any corrective needs in your eyes.  You may visit VISTA Eye Specialist Centre to have your eye examination check-up. All of our eye specialists are qualified and highly experienced to perform eye examination procedures.


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